Smart energy grid protocols use heartbeat, heartbeat messages for example IEC C37.118 Harmonization and Synchronization is used across smart grid applications and specifies a heartbeat update interval in milliseconds -- depending on the time sync source. Micro-grid use is set to increase dramatically in both military and commercial applications. The ability to accurately, reliably and consistently meter changes in power consumption between a community specializing in micro-grid energy production and a community specializing in a ecology module purifying water or producing bio-mass can monitor usage in terms of surpluses or shortages based on the last sync delta update across a trade federation / consortium as a basis for exchange e.g., electricity for water or food or fuel etc.

IEC C37.118 status reporting uses a publish-subscribe paradigm reliant on internet multicast as does emerging Named Data Networking NDS sponsored by the National Science Foundation and in many cases, Software Defined Networking. IEC C37.118 includes Constant Repetition Serves Sampled Data and GOOSE Integrity Heartbeat for:

• Predictable receipt • Constant bandwidth utilization

• GOOSE heartbeat messages, SV, time synchronization